Comparative tests of accretion rates of quasars derived using a new empirical and an existing theoretical relation: Insights into black hole properties and growth

Author:

Yash Aggarwal

Keyword:

Astrophysics, Astrophysics of Galaxies, Astrophysics of Galaxies (astro-ph.GA)

journal:

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date:

2023-06-03 16:00:00

Abstract

A scaling relation based on thin-disc accretion theory has been used by some workers to determine the mass-inflow rate onto 20 high-redshift (z) and 80 Palomar-Green quasars. Based on several assumptions, it inexplicably implies that the inflow rate is an inverse function of black-hole (BH) mass Mbh. Moreover, its results remain untested. This paper offers a simple empirical relation essentially free of assumptions, found using available data for 59 highest-z quasars and the so-called Salpeter relation. We find that the accretion rate is proportional to Mbh(1+z)3, consistent with conventional astrophysics that the accretion rate is a direct function of both Mbh and the ambient gas density. We apply it to the 20 high-z and a subset of Palomar-Green quasars. Comparative analyses show that all empirically derived accretion rates and radiative efficiencies pass the tests, but their theoretical counterparts fail in most cases. A secondary relation defines the Eddington ratio as a function of z and radiative efficiency. Consistent with the empirical relations, spline regression analysis of Kozlowski's data for 132,000 quasars at z<2.4 shows that both the Eddington ratio and radiative efficiency are functions of Mbh and z. The results show that bigger BHs accrete more efficiently the smaller ones. For BHs > a billion solar masses, we get radiative efficiency of ~0.23 at z>5.7 and ~0.84 at z<0.005. Notably, the empirical relations predict a mass-inflow rate of 0.11-0,21 solar mass/year on to the BH in M87 that matches its Bondi accretion rate determined using observed density and temperature profiles.