3D Beamforming Through Joint Phase-Time Arrays

Ozlem Yildiz, Ahmad AlAmmouri, Jianhua Mo, Younghan Nam, Elza Erkip, Jianzhong, Zhang
Computer Science, Information Theory, Information Theory (cs.IT), Signal Processing (eess.SP)
2024-01-01 00:00:00
High-frequency wide-bandwidth cellular communications over mmW and sub-THz offer the opportunity for high data rates, however, it also presents high pathloss, resulting in limited coverage. To mitigate the coverage limitations, high-gain beamforming is essential. Implementation of beamforming involves a large number of antennas, which introduces analog beam constraint, i.e., only one frequency-flat beam is generated per transceiver chain (TRx). Recently introduced joint phase-time array (JPTA) architecture, which utilizes both true time delay (TTD) units and phase shifters (PSs), alleviates analog beam constraint by creating multiple frequency-dependent beams per TRx, for scheduling multiple users at different directions in a frequency-division manner. One class of previous studies offered solutions with "rainbow" beams, which tend to allocate a small bandwidth per beam direction. Another class focused on uniform linear array (ULA) antenna architecture, whose frequency-dependent beams were designed along a single axis of either azimuth or elevation direction. In this paper, we present a novel 3D beamforming codebook design aimed at maximizing beamforming gain to steer radiation toward desired azimuth and elevation directions, as well as across sub-bands partitioned according to scheduled users' bandwidth requirements. We provide both analytical solutions and iterative algorithms to design the PSs and TTD units for a desired subband beam pattern. Through simulations of the beamforming gain, we observe that our proposed solutions outperform the state-of-the-art solutions reported elsewhere.
PDF: 3D Beamforming Through Joint Phase-Time Arrays.pdf
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