Evaluating Decision Optimality of Autonomous Driving via Metamorphic Testing

Mingfei Cheng, Yuan Zhou, Xiaofei Xie, Junjie Wang, Guozhu Meng, Kairui Yang
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI), Neural and Evolutionary Computing (cs.NE), Robotics (cs.RO), Software Engineering (cs.SE)
2024-02-28 00:00:00
Autonomous Driving System (ADS) testing is crucial in ADS development, with the current primary focus being on safety. However, the evaluation of non-safety-critical performance, particularly the ADS's ability to make optimal decisions and produce optimal paths for autonomous vehicles (AVs), is equally vital to ensure the intelligence and reduce risks of AVs. Currently, there is little work dedicated to assessing ADSs' optimal decision-making performance due to the lack of corresponding oracles and the difficulty in generating scenarios with non-optimal decisions. In this paper, we focus on evaluating the decision-making quality of an ADS and propose the first method for detecting non-optimal decision scenarios (NoDSs), where the ADS does not compute optimal paths for AVs. Firstly, to deal with the oracle problem, we propose a novel metamorphic relation (MR) aimed at exposing violations of optimal decisions. The MR identifies the property that the ADS should retain optimal decisions when the optimal path remains unaffected by non-invasive changes. Subsequently, we develop a new framework, Decictor, designed to generate NoDSs efficiently. Decictor comprises three main components: Non-invasive Mutation, MR Check, and Feedback. The Non-invasive Mutation ensures that the original optimal path in the mutated scenarios is not affected, while the MR Check is responsible for determining whether non-optimal decisions are made. To enhance the effectiveness of identifying NoDSs, we design a feedback metric that combines both spatial and temporal aspects of the AV's movement. We evaluate Decictor on Baidu Apollo, an open-source and production-grade ADS. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of Decictor in detecting non-optimal decisions of ADSs. Our work provides valuable and original insights into evaluating the non-safety-critical performance of ADSs.
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