This paper aims to develop a new human-machine interface to improve rehabilitation performance from the perspective of both the user (patient) and the machine (robot) by introducing the co-adaption techniques via model-based reinforcement learning. Previous studies focus more on robot assistance, i.e., to improve the control strategy so as to fulfill the objective of Assist-As-Needed. In this study, we treat the full process of robot-assisted rehabilitation as a co-adaptive or mutual learning process and emphasize the adaptation of the user to the machine. To this end, we proposed a Co-adaptive MDPs (CaMDPs) model to quantify the learning rates based on cooperative multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) in the high abstraction layer of the systems. We proposed several approaches to cooperatively adjust the Policy Improvement among the two agents in the framework of Policy Iteration. Based on the proposed co-adaptive MDPs, the simulation study indicates the non-stationary problem can be mitigated using various proposed Policy Improvement approaches.