Identifying Shared Decodable Concepts in the Human Brain Using Image-Language Foundation Models

Cory Efird, Alex Murphy, Joel Zylberberg, Alona Fyshe
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI), Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV)
2023-06-05 16:00:00
We introduce a method that takes advantage of high-quality pretrained multimodal representations to explore fine-grained semantic networks in the human brain. Previous studies have documented evidence of functional localization in the brain, with different anatomical regions preferentially activating for different types of sensory input. Many such localized structures are known, including the fusiform face area and parahippocampal place area. This raises the question of whether additional brain regions (or conjunctions of brain regions) are also specialized for other important semantic concepts. To identify such brain regions, we developed a data-driven approach to uncover visual concepts that are decodable from a massive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset. Our analysis is broadly split into three sections. First, a fully connected neural network is trained to map brain responses to the outputs of an image-language foundation model, CLIP (Radford et al., 2021). Subsequently, a contrastive-learning dimensionality reduction method reveals the brain-decodable components of CLIP space. In the final section of our analysis, we localize shared decodable concepts in the brain using a voxel-masking optimization method to produce a shared decodable concept (SDC) space. The accuracy of our procedure is validated by comparing it to previous localization experiments that identify regions for faces, bodies, and places. In addition to these concepts, whose corresponding brain regions were already known, we localize novel concept representations which are shared across participants to other areas of the human brain. We also demonstrate how this method can be used to inspect fine-grained semantic networks for individual participants. We envisage that this extensible method can also be adapted to explore other questions at the intersection of AI and neuroscience.
PDF: Identifying Shared Decodable Concepts in the Human Brain Using Image-Language Foundation Models.pdf
Empowered by ChatGPT