In-context Prompt Learning for Test-time Vision Recognition with Frozen Vision-language Model

Junhui Yin, Xinyu Zhang, Lin Wu, Xianghua Xie, Xiaojie Wang
Computer Science, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV)
2024-03-10 00:00:00
Existing pre-trained vision-language models, e.g., CLIP, have demonstrated impressive zero-shot generalization capabilities in various downstream tasks. However, the performance of these models will degrade significantly when test inputs present different distributions. To this end, we explore the concept of test-time prompt tuning (TTPT), which enables the adaptation of the CLIP model to novel downstream tasks through only one step of optimization on an unsupervised objective that involves the test sample. Motivated by in-context learning within field of natural language processing (NLP), we propose In-Context Prompt Learning (InCPL) for test-time visual recognition task. InCPL involves associating a new test sample with very few or even just one labeled example as its in-context prompt. As a result, it can reliably estimate a label for the test sample, thereby facilitating the model adaptation process. InCPL first employs a token net to represent language descriptions as visual prompts that the vision encoder of a CLIP model can comprehend. Paired with in-context examples, we further propose a context-aware unsupervised loss to optimize test sample-aware visual prompts. This optimization allows a pre-trained, frozen CLIP model to be adapted to a test sample from any task using its learned adaptive prompt. Our method has demonstrated superior performance and achieved state-of-the-art results across various downstream datasets.
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