MiM-ISTD: Mamba-in-Mamba for Efficient Infrared Small Target Detection

Tianxiang Chen, Zhentao Tan, Tao Gong, Qi Chu, Yue Wu, Bin Liu, Jieping Ye, Nenghai Yu
Computer Science, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV)
2024-03-04 00:00:00
Thanks to the development of basic models, infrared small target detection (ISTD) algorithms have made significant progress. Specifically, the structures combining convolutional networks with transformers can well extract both local and global features. At the same time, they also inherit defects from the basic model, e.g., the quadratic computational complexity of transformers, which impacts efficiency. Inspired by a recent basic model with linear complexity for long-distance modeling, called Mamba, we explore the potential of this state space model in ISTD in this paper. However, direct application is unsuitable since local features, which are critical to detecting small targets, cannot be fully exploited. Instead, we tailor a Mamba-in-Mamba (MiM-ISTD) structure for efficient ISTD. For example, we treat the local patches as "visual sentences" and further decompose them into sub-patches as "visual words" to further explore the locality. The interactions among each word in a given visual sentence will be calculated with negligible computational costs. By aggregating the word and sentence features, the representation ability of MiM-ISTD can be significantly bolstered. Experiments on NUAA-SIRST and IRSTD-1k prove the superior accuracy and efficiency of our method. Specifically, MiM-ISTD is $10 \times$ faster than the SOTA and reduces GPU memory usage by 73.4$\%$ per $2048 \times 2048$ image during inference, overcoming the computation$\&$memory constraints on performing Mamba-based understanding on high-resolution infrared images.Source code is available at
PDF: MiM-ISTD: Mamba-in-Mamba for Efficient Infrared Small Target Detection.pdf
Empowered by ChatGPT