Source Matters: Source Dataset Impact on Model Robustness in Medical Imaging

Dovile Juodelyte, Yucheng Lu, Amelia Jiménez-Sánchez, Sabrina Bottazzi, Enzo Ferrante, Veronika Cheplygina
Computer Science, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV), Machine Learning (cs.LG)
2024-03-07 00:00:00
Transfer learning has become an essential part of medical imaging classification algorithms, often leveraging ImageNet weights. However, the domain shift from natural to medical images has prompted alternatives such as RadImageNet, often demonstrating comparable classification performance. However, it remains unclear whether the performance gains from transfer learning stem from improved generalization or shortcut learning. To address this, we investigate potential confounders -- whether synthetic or sampled from the data -- across two publicly available chest X-ray and CT datasets. We show that ImageNet and RadImageNet achieve comparable classification performance, yet ImageNet is much more prone to overfitting to confounders. We recommend that researchers using ImageNet-pretrained models reexamine their model robustness by conducting similar experiments. Our code and experiments are available at
PDF: Source Matters: Source Dataset Impact on Model Robustness in Medical Imaging.pdf
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