Taming AI Bots: Controllability of Neural States in Large Language Models

Stefano Soatto, Paulo Tabuada, Pratik Chaudhari, Tian Yu Liu
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI), Computation and Language (cs.CL), Machine Learning (cs.LG), Systems and Control (eess.SY)
2023-05-28 16:00:00
We tackle the question of whether an agent can, by suitable choice of prompts, control an AI bot to any state. To that end, we first introduce a formal definition of ``meaning'' that is amenable to analysis. Then, we characterize ``meaningful data'' on which large language models (LLMs) are ostensibly trained, and ``well-trained LLMs'' through conditions that are largely met by today's LLMs. While a well-trained LLM constructs an embedding space of meanings that is Euclidean, meanings themselves do not form a vector (linear) subspace, but rather a quotient space within. We then characterize the subset of meanings that can be reached by the state of the LLMs for some input prompt, and show that a well-trained bot can reach any meaning albeit with small probability. We then introduce a stronger notion of controllability as {\em almost certain reachability}, and show that, when restricted to the space of meanings, an AI bot is controllable. We do so after introducing a functional characterization of attentive AI bots, and finally derive necessary and sufficient conditions for controllability. The fact that AI bots are controllable means that an adversary could steer them towards any state. However, the sampling process can be designed to counteract adverse actions and avoid reaching undesirable regions of state space before their boundary is crossed.
PDF: Taming AI Bots: Controllability of Neural States in Large Language Models.pdf
Empowered by ChatGPT