Collective neural network behavior in a dynamically driven disordered system of superconducting loops

Uday S. Goteti, Shane A. Cybart, Robert C. Dynes
Condensed Matter, Disordered Systems and Neural Networks, Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (cond-mat.dis-nn), Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech), Superconductivity (cond-mat.supr-con)
2023-10-29 16:00:00
Collective properties of complex systems composed of many interacting components such as neurons in our brain can be modeled by artificial networks based on disordered systems. We show that a disordered neural network of superconducting loops with Josephson junctions can exhibit computational properties like categorization and associative memory in the time evolution of its state in response to information from external excitations. Superconducting loops can trap multiples of fluxons in many discrete memory configurations defined by the local free energy minima in the configuration space of all possible states. A memory state can be updated by exciting the Josephson junctions to allow the movement of fluxons through the network as the current through them surpasses their critical current thresholds. Simulations performed with a lumped element circuit model of a 4-loop network show that information written through excitations is translated into stable states of trapped flux and their time evolution. Experimental implementation on a high-Tc superconductor YBCO-based 4-loop network shows dynamically stable flux flow in each pathway characterized by the correlations between junction firing statistics. Neural network behavior is observed as energy barriers separating state categories in simulations in response to multiple excitations, and experimentally as junction responses characterizing different flux flow patterns in the network. The state categories that produce these patterns have different temporal stabilities relative to each other and the excitations. This provides strong evidence for time-dependent (short-to-long-term) memories, that are dependent on the geometrical and junction parameters of the loops, as described with a network model.
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