Continuity Equation for the Flow of Fisher Information in Wave Scattering

Jakob Hüpfl, Felix Russo, Lukas M. Rachbauer, Dorian Bouchet, Junjie Lu, Ulrich Kuhl, Stefan Rotter
Condensed Matter, Disordered Systems and Neural Networks, Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (cond-mat.dis-nn), Optics (physics.optics), Quantum Physics (quant-ph)
2023-08-14 16:00:00
Using waves to explore our environment is a widely used paradigm, ranging from seismology to radar technology, and from bio-medical imaging to precision measurements. In all of these fields, the central aim is to gather as much information as possible about an object of interest by sending a probing wave at it and processing the information delivered back to the detector. Here, we demonstrate that an electromagnetic wave scattered at an object carries locally defined and conserved information about all of the object's constitutive parameters. Specifically, we introduce here the density and flux of Fisher information for very general types of wave fields and identify corresponding sources and sinks of information through which all these new quantities satisfy a fundamental continuity equation. We experimentally verify our theoretical predictions by studying a movable object embedded inside a disordered environment and by measuring the corresponding Fisher information flux at microwave frequencies. Our results provide a new understanding of the generation and propagation of information and open up new possibilities for tracking and designing the flow of information even in complex environments.
PDF: Continuity Equation for the Flow of Fisher Information in Wave Scattering.pdf
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