Inferring effective couplings with Restricted Boltzmann Machines

Aurélien Decelle, Cyril Furtlehner, Alfonso De Jesus Navas Gómez, Beatriz Seoane
Condensed Matter, Disordered Systems and Neural Networks, Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (cond-mat.dis-nn), Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech), Machine Learning (cs.LG)
2023-09-04 16:00:00
Generative models offer a direct way to model complex data. Among them, energy-based models provide us with a neural network model that aims to accurately reproduce all statistical correlations observed in the data at the level of the Boltzmann weight of the model. However, one challenge is to understand the physical interpretation of such models. In this study, we propose a simple solution by implementing a direct mapping between the energy function of the Restricted Boltzmann Machine and an effective Ising spin Hamiltonian that includes high-order interactions between spins. This mapping includes interactions of all possible orders, going beyond the conventional pairwise interactions typically considered in the inverse Ising approach, and allowing the description of complex datasets. Earlier works attempted to achieve this goal, but the proposed mappings did not do properly treat the complexity of the problem or did not contain direct prescriptions for practical application. To validate our method, we performed several controlled numerical experiments where we trained the RBMs using equilibrium samples of predefined models containing local external fields, two-body and three-body interactions in various low-dimensional topologies. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach in learning the correct interaction network and pave the way for its application in modeling interesting datasets. We also evaluate the quality of the inferred model based on different training methods.
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