The Decimation Scheme for Symmetric Matrix Factorization

Francesco Camilli, Marc Mézard
Condensed Matter, Disordered Systems and Neural Networks, Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (cond-mat.dis-nn), Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech), Information Theory (cs.IT), Machine Learning (cs.LG)
2023-07-30 16:00:00
Matrix factorization is an inference problem that has acquired importance due to its vast range of applications that go from dictionary learning to recommendation systems and machine learning with deep networks. The study of its fundamental statistical limits represents a true challenge, and despite a decade-long history of efforts in the community, there is still no closed formula able to describe its optimal performances in the case where the rank of the matrix scales linearly with its size. In the present paper, we study this extensive rank problem, extending the alternative 'decimation' procedure that we recently introduced, and carry out a thorough study of its performance. Decimation aims at recovering one column/line of the factors at a time, by mapping the problem into a sequence of neural network models of associative memory at a tunable temperature. Though being sub-optimal, decimation has the advantage of being theoretically analyzable. We extend its scope and analysis to two families of matrices. For a large class of compactly supported priors, we show that the replica symmetric free entropy of the neural network models takes a universal form in the low temperature limit. For sparse Ising prior, we show that the storage capacity of the neural network models diverges as sparsity in the patterns increases, and we introduce a simple algorithm based on a ground state search that implements decimation and performs matrix factorization, with no need of an informative initialization.
PDF: The Decimation Scheme for Symmetric Matrix Factorization.pdf
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