Positive and negative sampling strategies for self-supervised learning on audio-video data

Shanshan Wang, Soumya Tripathy, Toni Heittola, Annamaria Mesaros
Electrical Engineering and Systems Science, Audio and Speech Processing, Audio and Speech Processing (eess.AS)
2024-02-05 00:00:00
In Self-Supervised Learning (SSL), Audio-Visual Correspondence (AVC) is a popular task to learn deep audio and video features from large unlabeled datasets. The key step in AVC is to randomly sample audio and video clips from the dataset and learn to minimize the feature distance between the positive pairs (corresponding audio-video pair) while maximizing the distance between the negative pairs (non-corresponding audio-video pairs). The learnt features are shown to be effective on various downstream tasks. However, these methods achieve subpar performance when the size of the dataset is rather small. In this paper, we investigate the effect of utilizing class label information in the AVC feature learning task. We modified various positive and negative data sampling techniques of SSL based on class label information to investigate the effect on the feature quality. We propose a new sampling approach which we call soft-positive sampling, where the positive pair for one audio sample is not from the exact corresponding video, but from a video of the same class. Experimental results suggest that when the dataset size is small in SSL setup, features learnt through the soft-positive sampling method significantly outperform those from the traditional SSL sampling approaches. This trend holds in both in-domain and out-of-domain downstream tasks, and even outperforms supervised classification. Finally, experiments show that class label information can easily be obtained using a publicly available classifier network and then can be used to boost the SSL performance without adding extra data annotation burden.
PDF: Positive and negative sampling strategies for self-supervised learning on audio-video data.pdf
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