UniEnc-CASSNAT: An Encoder-only Non-autoregressive ASR for Speech SSL Models

Ruchao Fan, Natarajan Balaji Shanka, Abeer Alwan
Electrical Engineering and Systems Science, Audio and Speech Processing, Audio and Speech Processing (eess.AS), Computation and Language (cs.CL), Sound (cs.SD)
2024-02-14 00:00:00
Non-autoregressive automatic speech recognition (NASR) models have gained attention due to their parallelism and fast inference. The encoder-based NASR, e.g. connectionist temporal classification (CTC), can be initialized from the speech foundation models (SFM) but does not account for any dependencies among intermediate tokens. The encoder-decoder-based NASR, like CTC alignment-based single-step non-autoregressive transformer (CASS-NAT), can mitigate the dependency problem but is not able to efficiently integrate SFM. Inspired by the success of recent work of speech-text joint pre-training with a shared transformer encoder, we propose a new encoder-based NASR, UniEnc-CASSNAT, to combine the advantages of CTC and CASS-NAT. UniEnc-CASSNAT consists of only an encoder as the major module, which can be the SFM. The encoder plays the role of both the CASS-NAT encoder and decoder by two forward passes. The first pass of the encoder accepts the speech signal as input, while the concatenation of the speech signal and the token-level acoustic embedding is used as the input for the second pass. Examined on the Librispeech 100h, MyST, and Aishell1 datasets, the proposed UniEnc-CASSNAT achieves state-of-the-art NASR results and is better or comparable to CASS-NAT with only an encoder and hence, fewer model parameters. Our codes are publicly available.
PDF: UniEnc-CASSNAT: An Encoder-only Non-autoregressive ASR for Speech SSL Models.pdf
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