Extreme mass-ratio inspiral and waveforms for a spinning body into a Kerr black hole via osculating geodesics and near-identity transformations

Lisa V. Drummond, Philip Lynch, Alexandra G. Hanselman, Devin R. Becker, Scott A. Hughes
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc), High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena (astro-ph.HE)
2023-10-11 16:00:00
Understanding the orbits of spinning bodies in curved spacetime is important for modeling binary black hole systems with small mass ratios. At zeroth order in mass ratio, the smaller body moves on a geodesic. Post-geodesic effects are needed to model the system accurately. One very important post-geodesic effect is the gravitational self-force, which describes the small body's interaction with its own contribution to a binary's spacetime. Another post-geodesic effect, the spin-curvature force, is due to the smaller body's spin coupling to spacetime curvature. In this paper, we combine the leading orbit-averaged backreaction of point-particle gravitational-wave emission with the spin-curvature force to construct the worldline and gravitational waveform for a spinning body spiraling into a Kerr black hole. We use an osculating geodesic integrator, which treats the worldline as evolution through a sequence of geodesic orbits, as well as near-identity transformations, which eliminate dependence on orbital phases, allowing for fast computation of inspirals. The resulting inspirals and waveforms include all critical dynamical effects which govern such systems (orbit and precession frequencies, inspiral, strong-field gravitational-wave amplitudes), and as such form an effective first model for the inspiral of spinning bodies into Kerr black holes. We emphasize that our present calculation is not self consistent, since we neglect effects which enter at the same order as effects we include. However, our analysis demonstrates that the impact of spin-curvature forces can be incorporated into EMRI waveform tools with relative ease. The calculation is sufficiently modular that it should not be difficult to include neglected post-geodesic effects as efficient tools for computing them become available. (Abridged)
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