Hairy black holes induced by nonlinear superadiant instability

Cheng-Yong Zhang, Qian Chen, Yuxuan Liu, Yu Tian, Bin Wang
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)
2023-09-09 16:00:00
We unveil a new insight: beyond linear superradiant instability, a nonlinear mechanism can transform linearly stable bald black holes into hairy ones in asymptotically flat spacetime without necessitating artificial mirrors. As an illustrative example, by perturbing Reissner-Nordstr\"om (RN) black holes with a complex scalar field featuring a physical Q-ball type potential, we discover that significant perturbations can destroy the stability of RN black holes, resulting in the formation of Q-hairy black holes through an innovative nonlinear superradiant instability. For the first time in a black hole system, we observe the scalar hair displaying rhythmic radial expansion and contraction, indicating a novel type of bosenova. We find critical solutions at transition thresholds between bald and hairy black holes, inducing distinctive dynamical critical behaviors stemming from an intricate linear instability inherent in the critical solution.
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