Probing massive gravitons in $f(R)$ with lensed gravitational waves

Vipin Kumar Sharma, Sreekanth Harikumar, Margherita Grespan, Marek Biesiada, Murli Manohar Verma
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)
2023-10-15 16:00:00
We investigate the novel features of gravitational wave solutions in $f(R)$ gravity under proper gauge considerations in the shifted Ricci scalar background curvature ($R^{1+\epsilon}$). The solution is further explored to study the modified dispersion relations for massive modes at local scales and to derive constraints on $\epsilon$. Our analysis yields new insights as we scrutinize these dispersion effects on the polarization (modified Newman-Penrose content) and lensing properties of gravitational waves. It is discovered that the existing longitudinal scalar mode, and transverse breathing scalar mode are both independent of the mass parameter for $\epsilon<<1$. Further, by analysing the lensing amplification factor for the point mass lens model, we show that lensing of gravitational wave is highly sensitive to these dispersion effects in the milli-Hertz frequency (wave optics regime). It is expected that ultra-light modes, having mass about $\mathcal{O} (10^{-15})$ eV for $\epsilon<<1 (\approx 10^{-7})$ lensed by ($10^3\leq M_{Lens}\leq 10^6$)$M_\odot$ compact objects are likely to be detected by the advanced gravitational wave space-borne detectors, particularly within LISA's (The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) sensitivity band.
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