Baryon electric charge correlation as a magnetometer of QCD

Heng-Tong Ding, Jin-Biao Gu, Arpith Kumar, Sheng-Tai Li, Jun-Hong Liu
High Energy Physics - Lattice, High Energy Physics - Lattice (hep-lat), High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph), Nuclear Experiment (nucl-ex), Nuclear Theory (nucl-th)
2023-12-14 00:00:00
The correlation between net baryon number and electric charge, $\chi_{11}^{\rm BQ}$, can serve as a magnetometer of QCD. This is demonstrated by lattice QCD computations using the highly improved staggered quarks with physical pion mass of $M_\pi=135~$MeV on $N_\tau=8$ and 12 lattices. We find that $\chi_{11}^{\rm BQ}$ along the transition line starts to increase rapidly with magnetic field strength $eB\gtrsim 2M_\pi^2$ and by a factor 2 at $eB\simeq 8M_\pi^2$. Furthermore, the ratio of electric charge chemical potential to baryon chemical potential, $\mu_{\rm Q}/\mu_{\rm B}$, shows significant dependence on the magnetic field strength and varies from the ratio of electric charge to baryon number in the colliding nuclei in heavy ion collisions. These results can provide baselines for effective theory and model studies, and both $\chi_{11}^{\rm BQ}$ and $\mu_{\rm Q}/\mu_{\rm B}$ could be useful probes for the detection of magnetic fields in relativistic heavy ion collision experiments as compared with corresponding results from the hadron resonance gas model.
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