Cumulants and ordering of their ratios in 2D Potts models: Lessons for QCD?

Rajiv V. Gavai, Bedangadas Mohanty, Jaydev Singh Rao, Swati Saha
High Energy Physics - Lattice, High Energy Physics - Lattice (hep-lat), Nuclear Experiment (nucl-ex), Nuclear Theory (nucl-th)
2023-12-19 00:00:00
Theoretical considerations suggest an ordering of the ratios of net-baryon number fluctuations in the vicinity of the transition from the low-temperature hadronic phase to the high temperature quark-gluon plasma phase at small values of the baryon chemical potential, $\mu_B$, in the QCD phase diagram. The ordering hierarchy is $\frac{\chi_6}{\chi_2} < \frac{\chi_5}{\chi_1} < \frac{\chi_4}{\chi_2} < \frac{\chi_3}{\chi_1}$, where $\chi_n$ is the $n^\mathrm{th}$ order cumulant of net-baryon number fluctuation. The STAR experiment observed this hierarchy in the ordering of cumulant ratios of net-proton number (a proxy of net-baryon number) for a range of colliding energies. These inequalities can be tested in spin models by taking the corresponding order parameters in the model as an analog of baryon density. We employed two different models: the two-state and three-state Potts models in two dimensions, which undergo a transition from an ordered phase to a disordered phase at their respective critical temperature. Simulations were performed on square lattices of different sizes using the Wolff algorithm. The cumulants of total magnetization are obtained up to the sixth order in both of these models in a temperature range near their corresponding critical temperatures. With increasing lattice size, height (trough) of the peaks (dips) of the higher-order cumulants appears to increase with the increase in the order of the cumulants. Except in a narrow range above the critical temperature of the three-state Potts model, the complete inequality or its complete reverse is not satisfied in the temperature ranges simulated.
PDF: Cumulants and ordering of their ratios in 2D Potts models: Lessons for QCD?.pdf
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