Robust features of QCD phase diagram through a Contact Interaction model for quarks: A view from the effective potential

Author:

Aftab Ahmad, Muhammad Azher, Alfredo Raya

Keyword:

High Energy Physics - Phenomenology, High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph), Nuclear Theory (nucl-th)

journal:

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date:

2023-08-24 16:00:00

Abstract

Our research delves into the QCD phase diagram in the temperature $T$ and quark chemical potential $\mu$ plane. We use a unique confining contact interaction effective model of quark dynamics that maintains the QCD symmetry intact. By embedding the model into a Schwinger-Dyson equations framework, within a Landau gauge rainbow-ladder-like truncation, we derive the gap equation. In order to accurately regulate the said equation, we utilize the Schwinger optimal time regularization scheme. We further derive the effective potential of the model by integrating the gap equation over the dynamical mass, which along with the confining length scale serve as parameters for the chiral and confinement deconfinement phase transitions, respectively. A cross-over transition is observed at low $\mu$ and above a critical value of the temperature $T_c$, whilst a first order phase transition is found for low $T$ at high density. The critical end point is estimated to be located at $(\mu_{E}/T_{c,0}=1.6, T_{E}/T_{c,0}=0.42)$, which falls within the range of other QCD effective models predictions. $T_{c,0} =208$ MeV is the critical temperature at vanishing $\mu$. Screening effects of the medium which dilute the strength of the effective coupling are considered by including the vacuum polarization contribution due to quarks at high temperatures into the framework. It locates the critical end point at $( \mu^{E}_{c}/T_c \approx2.6, T^{E}_{c}/T_c \approx 0.57)$, which hints for a deeper analysis of screening effects on models of this kind.