Connections whose differential Galois groups are reductive of maximal degree

Author:

Masoud Kamgarpour, Daniel S. Sage

Keyword:

Mathematics, Algebraic Geometry, Algebraic Geometry (math.AG), Representation Theory (math.RT)

journal:

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date:

2023-09-20 16:00:00

Abstract

The differential Galois group of an $n^\mathrm{th}$ order linear differential equation is the symmetry group of its solutions; it is an algebraic subgroup of $\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb{C})$. More generally, if $G$ is a simple complex algebraic group, the differential Galois group of a $G$-connection is an algebraic subgroup of $G$. A connected reductive subgroup of $G$ is said to have maximal degree if it has a fundamental degree equal to the Coxeter number of $G$. We give a complete classification of these subgroups and generalise a theorem of Katz on linear differential equations by giving a criterion for the differential Galois group of a $G$-connection to be reductive of maximal degree. As an application, we determine the differential Galois groups of certain $G$-connections that play an important role in recent work on the geometric Langlands program: connections on $\mathbb{G}_m$ with an (irregular) "Coxeter" singularity and possibly an additional regular singular point.