We prove a collection of formulas for products of Schubert classes in the quantum $K$-theory ring $QK(X)$ of a cominuscule flag variety $X$. This includes a $K$-theory version of the Seidel representation, stating that the quantum product of a Seidel class with an arbitrary Schubert class is equal to a single Schubert class times a power of the deformation parameter $q$. We also prove new Pieri formulas for the quantum $K$-theory of maximal orthogonal Grassmannians and Lagrangian Grassmannians, and give a new proof of the known Pieri formula for the quantum $K$-theory of Grassmannians of type A. Our formulas have simple statements in terms of quantum shapes that represent the natural basis elements $q^d[{\mathcal O}_{X^u}]$ of $QK(X)$. Along the way we give a simple formula for $K$-theoretic Gromov-Witten invariants of Pieri type for Lagrangian Grassmannians, and prove a rationality result for the points in a Richardson variety in a symplectic Grassmannian that are perpendicular to a point in projective space.