We provide a description of Voevodsky's $\infty$-category of motivic spectra in terms of the subcategory of motives of smooth proper varieties. As applications, we construct weight filtrations on the Betti and \'{e}tale cohomologies of algebraic varieties with coefficients in any complex oriented ring spectrum. We show that these filtrations satisfy $\ell\mathrm{dh}$-descent, giving an effective way of calculating them in positive characteristic. In the complex motivic case, we further refine the weight filtration to one defined at the level of stable homotopy types.