The purpose of this paper is to prove that one can read off the gonality sequence of a smooth projective curve from syzygies of secant varieties of the curve embedded by a line bundle of sufficiently large degree. More precisely, together with Ein-Niu-Park's theorem, our main result shows that the gonality sequence of a smooth projective curve completely determines the shape of the minimal free resolutions of secant varieties of the curve of sufficiently large degree. This is a natural generalization of the gonality conjecture on syzygies of smooth projective curves established by Ein-Lazarsfeld and Rathmann to the secant varieties.