Breathing and switching cyclops states in Kuramoto networks with higher-mode coupling

Maxim I. Bolotov, Vyacheslav O. Munyayev, Lev A. Smirnov, Grigory V. Osipov, Igor Belykh
Nonlinear Sciences, Chaotic Dynamics, Chaotic Dynamics (nlin.CD)
2023-12-15 00:00:00
Cyclops states are intriguing cluster patterns observed in oscillator networks, including neuronal ensembles. The concept of cyclops states formed by two distinct, coherent clusters and a solitary oscillator was introduced in [Munyayev {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. 130, 107021 (2023)], where we explored the surprising prevalence of such states in repulsive Kuramoto networks of rotators with higher-mode harmonics in the coupling. This paper extends our analysis to understand the mechanisms responsible for destroying the cyclops' states and inducing new dynamical patterns called breathing and switching cyclops' states. We first analytically study the existence and stability of cyclops states in the Kuramoto-Sakaguchi networks of two-dimensional oscillators with inertia as a function of the second coupling harmonics. We then describe two bifurcation scenarios that give birth to breathing and switching cyclops states. We demonstrate that these states and their hybrids are prevalent across a wide coupling range and are robust against a relatively large intrinsic frequency detuning. Beyond the Kuramoto networks, breathing and switching cyclops states promise to strongly manifest in other physical and biological networks, including coupled theta-neurons.
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