New cluster algebras from old: integrability beyond Zamolodchikov periodicity

Andrew N. W. Hone, Wookyung Kim, Takafumi Mase
Nonlinear Sciences, Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems, Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems (nlin.SI), Mathematical Physics (math-ph), Combinatorics (math.CO)
2024-03-01 00:00:00
We consider discrete dynamical systems obtained as deformations of mutations in cluster algebras associated with finite-dimensional simple Lie algebras. The original (undeformed) dynamical systems provide the simplest examples of Zamolodchikov periodicity: they are affine birational maps for which every orbit is periodic with the same period. Following on from preliminary work by one of us with Kouloukas, here we present integrable maps obtained from deformations of cluster mutations related to the following simple root systems: $A_3$, $B_2$, $B_3$ and $D_4$. We further show how new cluster algebras arise, by considering Laurentification, that is, a lifting to a higher-dimensional map expressed in a set of new variables (tau functions), for which the dynamics exhibits the Laurent property. For the integrable map obtained by deformation of type $A_3$, which already appeared in our previous work, we show that there is a commuting map of Quispel-Roberts-Thompson (QRT) type which is built from a composition of mutations and a permutation applied to the same cluster algebra of rank 6, with an additional 2 frozen variables. Furthermore, both the deformed $A_3$ map and the QRT map correspond to addition of a point in the Mordell-Weil group of a rational elliptic surface of rank two, and the underlying cluster algebra comes from a quiver that mutation equivalent to the $q$-Painlev\'e III quiver found by Okubo. The deformed integrable maps of types $B_2$, $B_3$ and $D_4$ are also related to elliptic surfaces.
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