On real and imaginary roots of generalised Okamoto polynomials

Pieter Roffelsen, Alexander Stokes
Nonlinear Sciences, Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems, Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems (nlin.SI), Mathematical Physics (math-ph), Classical Analysis and ODEs (math.CA)
2024-02-24 00:00:00
Recently, B. Yang and J. Yang derived a family of rational solutions to the Sasa-Satsuma equation, and showed that any of its members constitutes a partial-rogue wave provided that an associated generalised Okamoto polynomial has no real roots or no imaginary roots. In this paper, we derive exact formulas for the number of real and the number of imaginary roots of the generalised Okamoto polynomials. On the one hand, this yields a list of partial-rogue waves that satisfy the Sasa-Satsuma equation. On the other hand, it gives families of rational solutions of the fourth Painlev\'e equation that are pole-free on either the real line or the imaginary line. To obtain these formulas, we develop an algorithmic procedure to derive the qualitative distribution of singularities on the real line for real solutions of Painlev\'e equations, starting from the known distribution for a seed solution, through the action of B\"acklund transformations on the rational surfaces forming their spaces of initial conditions.
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