The instabilities beyond modulational type in a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate with a periodic potential

Author:

Wen-Rong Sun, Jin-Hua Li, Lei Liu, P. G. Kevrekidis

Keyword:

Nonlinear Sciences, Pattern Formation and Solitons, Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

journal:

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date:

2023-04-28 16:00:00

Abstract

The instabilities of the nontrivial phase elliptic solutions in a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with a periodic potential are investigated. Based on the defocusing nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger (NLS) equation with an elliptic function potential, the well-known modulational instability (MI), the more recently identified high-frequency instability, and an unprecedented -- to our knowledge -- variant of the MI, the so-called isola instability are identified numerically. Upon varying parameters of the solutions, instability transitions occur through the suitable bifurcations, such as the Hamiltonian Hope one. Specifically, (i) increasing the elliptic modulus $k$ of the solutions, we find that MI switches to the isola instability and the dominant disturbance has twice the elliptic wave's period, corresponding to a Floquet exponent $\mu=\frac{\pi}{2K(k)}$. The isola instability arises from the collision of spectral elements at the origin of the spectral plane. (ii) Upon varying $V_{0}$, the transition between MI and the high-frequency instability occurs. Differently from the MI and isola instability where the collisions of eigenvalues happen at the origin, high-frequency instability arises from pairwise collisions of nonzero, imaginary elements of the stability spectrum; (iii) In the limit of sinusoidal potential, we show that MI occurs from a collision of eigenvalues with $\mu=\frac{\pi}{2K(k)}$ at the origin; (iv) we also examine the dynamic byproducts of the instability in chaotic fields generated by its manifestation. An interesting observation is that, in addition to MI, the isola instability could also lead to dark localized events in the scalar defocusing NLS equation.