Three- and four-wave resonances in the nonlinear quadratic Kelvin lattice

Andrea Pezzi, Tiziana Comito, Miguel D. Bustamante, Miguel Onorato
Nonlinear Sciences, Pattern Formation and Solitons, Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS), Chaotic Dynamics (nlin.CD), Optics (physics.optics)
2023-10-01 16:00:00
In this paper we investigate analytically and numerically the nonlinear Kelvin lattice, namely a chain of masses and nonlinear springs, as in the alpha-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou (FPUT) chain, where, in addition, each mass is connected to a nonlinear resonator, i.e., a second mass free to oscillate. Both nonlinearities are quadratic in the equations of motion. This setup represents the simplest prototype of nonlinear wave propagation on a nonlinear metamaterial. In the linear case, we diagonalize the system, and the two branches of the dispersion relation can be found. Using this result, we derive in the nonlinear case the equations of motion for the normal variables in Fourier space, obtaining a system governed by triad interactions among the two branches of the dispersion relation. We find that the transfer of energy between these two branches is ruled by three- and four-wave resonant interactions. We perform numerical simulations of the primitive equations of motion and highlight the role of resonances as an efficient mechanism for transferring energy. Moreover, as predicted by the theory, we provide direct evidence that four-wave resonances appear on a time scale that is longer than the time scale for three-wave resonances. We also assess the recurrence behaviour (usual in the FPUT system) for the nonlinear Kelvin lattice, and we show that, while recurrence is observed if all the energy is placed, at time t=0, in the lowest mode of the acoustical branch, a non-recurrent behaviour is observed if the initial energy is located in the optical branch.
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