Triadic percolation induces dynamical topological patterns in higher-order networks

Ana P. Millán, Hanlin Sun, Joaquìn J. Torres, Ginestra Bianconi
Nonlinear Sciences, Adaptation and Self-Organizing Systems, Adaptation and Self-Organizing Systems (nlin.AO), Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (cond-mat.dis-nn), Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech), Chaotic Dynamics (nlin.CD), Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph)
2023-11-25 00:00:00
Triadic interactions are higher-order interactions that occur when a set of nodes affects the interaction between two other nodes. Examples of triadic interactions are present in the brain when glia modulate the synaptic signals among neuron pairs or when interneuron axon-axonic synapses enable presynaptic inhibition and facilitation, and in ecosystems when one or more species can affect the interaction among two other species. On random graphs, triadic percolation has been recently shown to turn percolation into a fully-fledged dynamical process in which the size of the giant component undergoes a route to chaos. However, in many real cases, triadic interactions are local and occur on spatially embedded networks. Here we show that triadic interactions in spatial networks induce a very complex spatio-temporal modulation of the giant component which gives rise to triadic percolation patterns with significantly different topology. We classify the observed patterns (stripes, octopus, and small clusters) with topological data analysis and we assess their information content (entropy and complexity). Moreover, we illustrate the multistability of the dynamics of the triadic percolation patterns and we provide a comprehensive phase diagram of the model. These results open new perspectives in percolation as they demonstrate that in presence of spatial triadic interactions, the giant component can acquire a time-varying topology. Hence, this work provides a theoretical framework that can be applied to model realistic scenarios in which the giant component is time-dependent as in neuroscience.
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